Name: Ruixin Zhou

Domestic institution: Shandong Youth University Of Political Science Grade: junior

Major: English

Current position:  class monitor of visiting programme

姓名:周睿馨

国内院校:山东青年政治学院

年级:大三

所学专业:英语

目前担任职务:访学班级班长。

Ruixin Zhou : Comparison of Quality of Public Transportation Provision in the UK to that in China

Foreigners may feel confused about transportation provision in a new country. This essay mainly talks about the features of public transport in China and the United Kingdom; thus, it would be easy for you to learn the distinction between them. This research mainly includes three parts: The strength and weakness of transportation provision in two countries, which country has better public transportation and how the other country needs to improve its public transportation provision.

From the beginning, this essay will analyze the distinctive features of transportation in different countries. Initially, China has a large population, which requires the high compacity of transportation, thus, this country owns diverse public transport means. They can be adjusted according to the needs, population and time. Secondly, China would pay more attention to the administration of road, each road will perform its function, the footpath, bicycle, and motor vehicle will be divided into different paths on the same road, therefore, the safety of driver and pedestrian can be protected. The United Kingdom has two different features to China in the public transportation. In the first stage, the performance of transportation rule is very strict, which can be shown in the test of getting driving license. In London, only 20% attendees can pass the test of taxi driving license at the first time, most of the examination include the rules of not bothering others driving and the limitation of driving speed per hour. Apart from that, the pedestrian and driver have strong consciousness to conform the transportation rules, when one needs to cross the road, they will push the button immediately and wait for the green light patiently, in addition, the drivers in the UK are very polite, if they see the yellow light in the zebra road, they will stop and let the people to cross the road in advance.

Under this circumstance, this essay will analyze the strength and weakness of each country respectively. According to the characteristic of Chinese transportation, they can use different transportation to get to the destination efficiently and quickly, for example, you can get to Japan from Qingdao Province by ship or airplane, which can both save the time and cost. Additionally, with the economic development in urban area, apart from bicycle, public transportation,electro mobile, private car is another choice for most of commuter. On the contrary, though there’s plenty of advantages in transportation in China, it still has unavoidable weakness. For example, with the increase of private car, more than 60% oil now imported (Wang and jin 2014), which will cause severe geopolitical results. Air pollution now has become the top concern of the population and the health consequence of air pollution now include over a million of premature deaths per year (Yang et al.2013). For most Chinese people, blue and clean air has become a distant memory. The single-minded urban development of the past 30 years, with urban sprawl and land-use patterns that encourage auto use, has caused road congestion and traffic jams that are becoming a real plague (The Economist 2015). These are the weaknesses of transportation as the economic development in China.

In the comparison of the United Kingdom, the situation is very different. Firstly, with the smaller population, England is under less pressure in terms of transport congestion and traffic jam, the government implemented several powerful rules to manage the district respectively. For example, the motor vehicle will be allowed to pass the city center, walking area and business zone in the specific time, this measure has effectively limited the traffic flow in the road. In another perspective, the infrastructure in Britain is very comprehensive,such as the Cambridge. It’s a university town, in which the ground is flat. Because there’re lots of students who often ride bicycle, thus, the government in London has provided a more comprehensive safe protection to keep their safety. As a result, the amount of population of riding bicycle has overwhelming exceeded those who often drive the car in one hundred year, besides that, there’s a net-rent system for bicycle in the city center of London, which provided much convenience for people.

On the contrary, despite the transportation in the United Kingdom has loads of advantages, there’re still some facts in the opposite way.

Firstly, the quality of some pedestrians in the city isn’t fantastic, which is too narrow to pass. Some protective work can not be done very well and it’s so bumpy and uncomfortable for people to ride bicycle. Secondly, the bus or train operating company can obtain a large number of government funding. Since they became privatization, the cost of operating company will be higher.

As the boost of economy of the world and update of technology, China will be one of the most promising country to improve its transportation management. First of all, they have the courage to face the tou0-gh challenges. As it’s known to the people, some landform in the city isn’t suitable to build subway. For example, Jinan is a city, famous for spring in the summer, but unfortunately, the structure underground is very close to the mouths of spring. If the government wants to build subway, some holes can get damaged. Finally, through several times’ revision and discussion, the Transportation Department explored a new way to build subway without destroying the structure of spring. Then, the application of new energy, such as alternative fuels, which has reduced the air pollution significantly. In April 1999, some Chinese cities, such as Beijing and Shanghai, they joined the program of “National Clean Vehicle Action”, which introduced alternative fuels. This program aimed to reduce air pollution from vehicles and fuel consumption by applying new technology. In December 2002, the number of CNG/LPG vehicles rose to approximately 153,440 and 486 stations were built to fuel these vehicles. Thus, it’s obvious that China has managed to transfer energy consumption and develop better.

Since the transformation in different areas, some provisions and problems in Britain needs to be improved. For example, the regulation for taxi and bus in London has always become the top concern for authority, the abuse of taxi and incompatibility between taxi and bus can be counted as serious problem, therefore, some measure must be taken.

The position about quantity limits are still ambiguous, about 28% of authorities in England and Wales still have them, so, should there be a general encouragement to eliminate the rest of quantity managements? If so, on what timescale. Otherwise, the main law regulating taxis outside London is very old-established – the Town Police Clause Act of 1847. It’s clear that, the issues mentioned above still need settled.

In a conclusion, this essay mainly summarizes the features of transportation in the United Kingdom and China and compare the strength and weakness of each country. With the development of economy, China would pay more attention to provide better public transportation for residents in comfortable experience and high efficiency. The United Kingdom has stricter rules in public transportation, but they also have to improve a lot.

Xiaojun Hu*, Shiyan Chang, Jingjie Li, Yining Qin. Energy for sustainable road transportation in China: Challenges, initiatives and policy implications, Energy 35 (2010) 4289–4301,4290-4300.

Michael Q. Wang & Hal Harvey. Chinese transport: achievements and challenges of transport policies. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change (2015) 20:623–626 DOI 10.1007/s11027-015-9647-y,

Nagendra R. Velaga, John D. Nelson, Steve D. Wright, John H. The Potential Role of Flexible Transport Services in Enhancing Rural Public Transport Provision. Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2012. 111-117.

Peter White. Report on Public Transport Provision in Rural and Depopulated Areas in the United Kingdom(Discussion Paper 2015• 07), International Transport Forum, 13-25.

Jimin Zhao, Marc W. Melaina. Transition to hydrogen-based transportation in China: Lessons learned from alternative fuel vehicle programs in the United States and China, Energy Policy 34 (2006) 1299–1309, 1301-1305.

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